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  • Knee Pain Knee Pain

    Knee pain is a common condition affecting individuals of various age groups. It not only affects movement but also impacts your quality of life. An injury or disease of the knee joint or any structure surrounding the knee can result in knee pain.

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Knee Arthritis

  • Knee Osteoarthritis Knee Osteoarthritis

    Osteoarthritis also called degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis. It occurs most often in older people. This disease affects the tissue covering the ends of bones in a joint (cartilage).

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  • Patellofemoral Arthritis Patellofemoral Arthritis

    Patellofemoral arthritis is an inflammatory condition characterized by loss of the smooth cartilage between the kneecap (patella) and the underlying femoral (thigh) bone in the knee joint.

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Knee Fracture

  • Periprosthetic Knee Fractures Periprosthetic Knee Fractures

    Knee replacement, also called knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the worn-out or damaged surfaces of the knee joint are removed and replaced with artificial implants. Any resulting fractures or breaks in the bone around the implant are called periprosthetic knee fractures.

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  • Patella Fracture Patella Fracture

    The kneecap or patella forms a part of the knee joint. It is present at the front of the knee, protecting the knee and providing attachment to various muscle groups of the thigh and leg.

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  • Tibial Shaft Fracture Tibial Shaft Fracture

    A tibial shaft fracture is a crack or break in the middle section of the tibia bone due to severe trauma.The lower leg is made up of two long bones called the tibia and fibula that extend between the knee and ankle and help form the ankle joint and knee joint.

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  • Fractures of the Patella Fractures of the Patella

    The patella or kneecap is a small bone present in the front of your knee where the thigh bone meets the shinbone. It provides protection to your knee and attachment to muscles in the front of the thigh.

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  • Fractures of the Tibia Fractures of the Tibia

    The lower leg is made up of two long bones called the tibia and fibula that extend between the knee and ankle. The tibia or shinbone is the larger of the two bones. It bears most of the body’s weight and helps form the ankle joint and knee joint.

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  • Distal Femur Fracture  Distal Femur Fracture

    The femur or thigh bone is the longest and strongest bone in the body, connecting the hip to the knee. A femur fracture is a break in the femur. The distal femur refers to the lower part of the thigh bone which flares out like an upside-down funnel and its lower end is covered by a smooth, slippery articular cartilage that protects and cushions the bone during movement.

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  • Tibial Plateau Fracture  Tibial Plateau Fracture

    A tibial plateau fracture is a crack or break on the top surface of the tibia or shinbone in the knee joint. The fracture most often occurs following a high-intensity trauma or injury from the impaction of the femoral condyles over the tibial plateau.

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  • Knee Stress Fractures  Knee Stress Fractures

    Stress fractures of the patella or knee are very rare. Approximately two out of 10,000 athletes may experience a patella stress fracture. Initial symptoms include activity-related pain and then a fatigue stress fracture after minor trauma.

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  • Tibial Eminence Fractures  Tibial Eminence Fractures

    The tibial eminence, also called the tibial spine, is a bony protuberance of the tibia (shin bone) that attaches to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee joint.

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  • Stress Fracture of the Tibia  Stress Fracture of the Tibia

    A stress fracture of the tibia or shinbone is a thin fracture, also called a hairline fracture that occurs in the tibia due to excess stress or overuse. The tibia is a weight-bearing bone in which stresses can accumulate from activities such as running and jumping.

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Knee Injury

  • Meniscal Injuries  Meniscal Injuries

    Meniscal tears are one of the most common injuries to the knee joint. It can occur at any age but are more common in athletes involved in contact sports. The meniscus has no direct blood supply and for that reason, when there is an injury to the meniscus, healing is difficult.

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  • Meniscal Tears  Meniscal Tears

    A meniscal tear is a common knee injury in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. A sudden bend or twist in your knee causes the meniscus to tear.

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  • PCL Injuries  PCL Injuries

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), one of the four major ligaments of the knee, is situated at the back of the knee. It connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia).

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  • Knee Sports Injuries  Knee Sports Injuries

    Trauma is any injury caused during physical activity, motor vehicle accidents, electric shock, or other activities. Sports trauma or sports injuries refer to injuries caused while playing indoor or outdoor sports and exercising.

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  • Knee Ligament Injuries  Knee Ligament Injuries

    The knee is a hinge joint made up of two bones, the thighbone (femur) and shinbone (tibia). Ligaments are tough bands of tissue that connect one bone to another bone. The ligaments of the knee stabilize the knee joint.

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  • MCL Tears  MCL Tears

    The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the ligament located on the inner part of the knee joint. It runs from the femur (thighbone) to the top of the tibia (shinbone) and helps in stabilizing the knee.

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  • ACL Tears  ACL Tears

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the major ligaments of the knee. It is located in the middle of the knee and runs from the femur (thighbone) to the tibia (shinbone). The ACL prevents the tibia from sliding out in front of the femur.

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  • Posterolateral Corner Injuries  Posterolateral Corner Injuries

    Posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries are defined as damage to a complex area of the knee formed by the association of 3 main structures of the knee, namely popliteus tendon, popliteofibular ligament, and lateral (fibular) collateral ligament.

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  • Meniscus Root Tear  Meniscus Root Tear

    Meniscal root tears are characterized as soft tissue or bony root avulsion injuries or radial tears located within 1 cm of meniscus root attachment.

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  • Articular Cartilage Injury  Articular Cartilage Injury

    Articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint. Cartilage helps the bones move smoothly against each other and can withstand the weight of the body during activities such as running and jumping.

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  • Multiligament Knee Injuries  Multiligament Knee Injuries

    Injury to more than one knee ligament is called a multiligament knee injury and may occur during sports or other physical activities.

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Knee Instability

  • Multiligament Instability  Multiligament Instability

    A multiligament injury is a tear in one or more ligaments of the knee, which affects the knee stability. It occurs because of a direct blow to the knee, fall from a height or motor vehicle trauma.

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  • Patellar Instability  Patellar Instability

    Any damage to the supporting ligaments may cause the patella to slip out of the groove either partially (subluxation) or completely (dislocation). This misalignment can damage the underlying soft structures such as muscles and ligaments that hold the kneecap in place.

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  • Patellofemoral Instability  Patellofemoral Instability

    Patellofemoral instability means that the patella (kneecap) moves out of its normal pattern of alignment. This malalignment can damage the underlying soft structures such as muscles and ligaments that hold the knee in place.

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  • Posterolateral Instability  Posterolateral Instability

    Posterolateral instability, also known as posterolateral rotatory instability (PLRI), is a common pattern of knee instability that results from injuries to the structures that support the outside of the knee joint, the posterolateral corner.

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  • Lateral Patellar Instability  Lateral Patellar Instability

    Lateral patellar instability is defined as a lateral shift or displacement of the patella (kneecap) as a result of disruptive changes in the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) and medial patellar retinaculum.

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  • Medial Patellar Instability  Medial Patellar Instability

    Medial patellar instability is a disabling condition characterized by medial subluxation of the patella which occurs as a complication of lateral retinacular release surgery.

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  • Jumper's Knee  Jumper's Knee

    Jumper’s knee, also known as patellar tendinitis, is inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in the extension of the lower leg.

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  • Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee  Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee

    Osteochondritis dissecans is a joint condition in which a piece of cartilage, along with a thin layer of the bone separates from the end of the bone because of inadequate blood supply. The separated fragments are sometimes called “joint mice”.

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  • Unstable Knee  Unstable Knee

    An unstable knee can be caused by the sudden twisting of the knee, tears of the meniscus, ligament or capsule, osteoarthritis of the knee (wear and tear of the cushioning cartilage tissue between the bones) and sports injuries.

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  • Knee Sprain  Knee Sprain

    Knee sprain is a common injury that occurs from overstretching of the ligaments that support the knee joint. A knee sprain occurs when the knee ligaments are twisted or turned beyond its normal range, causing the ligaments to tear.

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  • MCL Sprains  MCL Sprains

    MCL sprains occur due to a sudden impact from the outside of your knee, most commonly while playing sports such as rugby and football. Rarely, the MCL can get injured when the knee gets twisted or following a quick change in direction.

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  • Chondral or Articular Cartilage Defects  Chondral or Articular Cartilage Defects

    The articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint. Cartilage helps the bones move smoothly against each other and can withstand the weight of your body during activities such as running and jumping.

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  • Recurrent Patella Dislocation  Recurrent Patella Dislocation

    Patellar dislocation occurs when the kneecap slides out of the trochlea. When dislocation of the patella occurs on more than one occasion, it is referred to as recurrent patellar dislocation.

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  • Patellar Tendon Rupture  Patellar Tendon Rupture

    The patellar tendon works together with the quadriceps muscle and the quadriceps tendon to allow your knee to straighten out. Patella tendon rupture is the rupture of the tendon that connects the patella (kneecap) to the top portion of the tibia (shinbone).

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  • Lateral Meniscus Syndrome  Lateral Meniscus Syndrome

    Lateral meniscus syndrome is characterized by an injury caused by the tearing of the cartilage tissue or a rare case of a congenital abnormality called a discoid meniscus, which results in knee pain.

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  • Osteonecrosis of the Knee  Osteonecrosis of the Knee

    Osteonecrosis is a condition in which the death of a section of bone occurs because of lack of blood supply to it. It is one of the most common causes of knee pain in older women.

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  • Osteochondral Defect of the Knee  Osteochondral Defect of the Knee

    An osteochondral defect, also commonly known as osteochondritis dissecans, of the knee refers to a damage or injury to the smooth articular cartilage surrounding the knee joint and the bone underneath the cartilage.

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  • Knee Dislocation  Knee Dislocation

    Knee dislocation is a condition that occurs when the bones that form the knee joint, namely the femur or thigh bone get separated from the shin bone. This can cause serious damage to the nerves, blood vessels, and ligaments surrounding the knee, leading to a decline in strength and overall health of the leg.

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  • Patellar Tendinitis  Patellar Tendinitis

    Patellar tendinitis, also known as "jumper's knee", is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in extension of the lower leg.

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  • Medial Meniscus Syndrome  Medial Meniscus Syndrome

    Medial meniscal injuries are usually considered as either traumatic or degenerative. Whilst degenerate tears may present with a gradual history of increasing symptoms, traumatic injuries will usually occur as the knee is extended and rotated from a flexed position against resistance.

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  • Osgood Schlatter Disease  Osgood Schlatter Disease

    Osgood-Schlatter disease refers to a condition in older children and teenagers caused by excessive stress to the patellar tendon (located below the kneecap). Participants in sports such as soccer, gymnastics, basketball, and distance running are at higher risk for this disease.

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  • Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Repair  Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Repair

    A quadriceps tendon rupture is defined as a tear of the quadriceps tendon as a result of a traumatic incident.The quadriceps tendon is a strong rope-like fibrous tissue located at the top of the patella or kneecap that connects the quadriceps muscles to the kneecap.

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  • Knee Effusion  Knee Effusion

    Knee effusion also known as water on the knee or swollen knee is a condition characterized by swelling in the knee joint due to the excess accumulation of synovial fluid(the fluid which surrounds the joint)or leakage of lymph fluid or blood into the joint space.

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  • Anterior Knee Pain  Anterior Knee Pain

    Anterior knee pain is characterized by chronic pain over the front and center of the knee joint. It is common in athletes, active adolescents (especially girls) and overweight individuals.

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